The area includes 13 island countries, from the Bahamas in the north to Trinidad and Tobago in the south; Belize, which is geographically located in Central America; and the 2 nations of Guyana and Suriname, located on the north central coast of South America. Lots of countries in the region share a common African ethnic and British colonial heritage, while Cuba and the Dominican Republic were Spanish colonies, Haiti was French, and Suriname was Dutch. The dates of independence of these nations range from Haiti in 1804 to St. Kitts and Nevis in 1983. The largest countries in terms of land location are Guyana and Suriname, while those with the biggest populations are Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Haiti.
Politically, all Caribbean countries, with the exception of communist Cuba, have actually chosen democratic governments. The majority of the former British colonies have parliamentary types of government, with the exception of Guyana, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Suriname, which are republics headed by presidents. In regards to regional combination, 14 of the region's independent nations come from the Caribbean Neighborhood (CARICOM), with the exception of the Dominican Republic (which has observer status) and Cuba. CARICOM was formed in 1973 to stimulate regional financial integration. Some critics argue that it has been sluggish to promote combination, compared to other regional financial groupings, but development has been made in approaching a single economic market and in developing a Caribbean Court of Justice.
The 6 OECS countries likewise share a typical currency, the Eastern Caribbean dollar, with financial policy handled by the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank. The Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), headquartered in Barbados, promotes economic development and regional integration. With the exception of Cuba and Haiti, regular elections have been the standard, and for the most part have actually been free and reasonable. In 2005, Dominica and Suriname held elections in Might, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines held elections in December. Haiti was anticipated to hold elections in 2005, however considerable problems and political instability led to those elections being held off several times, until they were ultimately hung on February 7, 2006.
Successful elections eventually were hung on August 28, 2006, without the political violence that some observers had actually prepared for. Looking ahead, parliamentary elections are due in St. Lucia by December 2006, while elections in the Bahamas, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago are due in 2007. (See for a listing of leaders and elections for head of government.) Although numerous Caribbean nations have actually maintained long democratic customs, they are not immune from terrorist and other risks to their political stability. In 1993, stability on St. Kitts was threatened following violent demonstrations after challenged elections; order was restored with the support of security forces from neighboring states.
Earlier in the 1980s, the federal government of Eugenia Charles in Dominica was threatened by a strange coup plot including foreign mercenaries. And of course, Grenada, under the socialist-oriented federal government of Maurice Bishop, experienced a break from the democratic standard after it presumed power in a nearly bloodless coup in 1979 and installed a people's advanced federal government. After the violent overthrow and murder of Bishop in 1983, the United States intervened to bring back order and end the Cuban existence on the island. Many Caribbean countries experienced a financial slump in 2001-2002 due to recessions in the tourism and farming sectors, although a lot of Caribbean economies have rebounded considering that 2003.
financial recession and sluggish healing. The banana and sugar sectors in the Eastern Caribbean were harmed by a tropical storm in 2002 and a drought in 2003. Both sectors face unsure futures because of the European Union's strategy to phase out favored market access from previous Caribbean nests for bananas by 2006 and for sugar by 2009. The Haitian economy experienced decrease start in 2001, with political instability exacerbating currently challenging financial conditions in the hemisphere's poorest country. The greatest performing economies in the last few years have actually been those of the Dominican Republic, fueled by the apparel sector, and Trinidad and Tobago, with substantial energy resources.
In 2004 and 2005, the region's greatest economic entertainers averaging growth rates over 5% for those 2 years, were Antigua and Barbuda, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago. Those countries not faring well in 2004 since of devastating typhoons and tropical storms consisted of Haiti, with a 3. 5%% decrease in gdp (GDP), and Grenada, with a GDP decline of 3%. For 2005, however, Grenada's economy rebounded with growth over 5%, while Haiti's development was 1. 8%. In Guyana, economic development has been stagnant or minimal over the previous several years. In 2005, the economy decreased 3% due to the fact that of high oil prices and floods, which early in the year seriously affected agriculture and mining activities.
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Nonetheless, some observers have also been worried about the area's high level of public financial obligation, with several Caribbean countries having financial obligation levels that surpass 100% of their GDP. U.S. interests in the Caribbean vary, and consist of economic, political, and security issues. During the Cold War, security concerns tended to eclipse other policy interests. In the consequences of the Cold War, other U.S. policy interests emerged from the shadow of the East-West conflict in the Caribbean that concentrated on concerns about the Soviet and Cuban hazard. U.S. policy concerns shifted from one highlighting security issues to a new focus on strengthened financial relations through trade and financial investment.
interest in the Caribbean. The Administration explains the Caribbean as America's "3rd border," with events in the region having a direct effect on the homeland security of the United States. It explains Caribbean countries as "essential partners on security, trade, health, the environment, education, local democracy, and other hemispheric issues." The United States has close relations with the majority of Caribbean nations, with the exception of Cuba under Fidel Castro. The U.S.-Caribbean relationship is https://www.elkvalleytimes.com/news/business/wesley-financial-group-provides-nearly-million-in-timeshare-debt-relief/article_4be24045-0034-5e07-a6ac-d57ec8d31fcd.html characterized by substantial economic linkages, cooperation on counter-narcotics efforts and security, and a sizeable U.S. foreign assistance program supporting a variety of projects to strengthen democracy, promote economic development and development, relieve hardship, and fight the AIDS epidemic in the area. Customs and Border Protection of the Department of Homeland Security. The CSI program assists ensure that high-risk containers are identified and checked at foreign ports prior to they are placed on vessels for delivery to the United States. In September 2006, 3 Caribbean ports ended up being functional CSI ports: Caucedo, Dominican Republic; Kingston, Jamaica; and Freeport, Bahamas. Other Latin American ports in the CSI program are the Central American port of Puerto Cortes, Honduras, and the South American ports of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Santos, Brazil. In the 108th Congress, a legal effort required additional foreign support in order to enhance foreign port security worldwide, but no final action was completed before the end of the session.
2279 (Hollings), in September 2004, which would have attended to the Administrator of the Maritime Administration, in coordination with the Secretary of State, to recognize foreign support programs that could help with implementation of port security antiterrorism steps in foreign nations. The act likewise would have required a report on the security of ports in the Caribbean Basin, including an evaluation of the efficiency of the steps employed to enhanced security at such ports and an evaluation of the resources and program modifications needed to make the most of security at Caribbean Basin ports. In the 109th Congress, two costs would offer for foreign assistance programs for Caribbean Basin ports.
744 (Nelson, Expense), introduced April https://www.inhersight.com/companies/best/reviews/flexible-hours 11, 2005, would establish a Caribbean Basin Port Support Program. Under the legal effort, the Administrator of MARAD in the Department of Transport, in coordination with the Secretary of State, would identify foreign help programs that might facilitate execution of port security antiterrorism procedures at Caribbean Basin ports. The https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20190911005618/en/Wesley-Financial-Group-Continues-Record-Breaking-Pace-Timeshare Administrator and the Secretary would develop a program for such help in consultation with the Organization of American States. In addition, the Secretary of Homeland Security would be needed to send a report to Congress on status of port security in Caribbean Basin nations. S. 1052 (Stevens), the Transport Security Enhancement Act of 2005, consists of a provision (Section 504) that would establish a program to help with execution of port security antiterrorism procedures in foreign nations, with specific emphasis on ports in the Caribbean Basin; this bill was introduced May 17, 2005, and reported by the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on February 27, 2006 (S.Rept.
2791 (Stevens), presented May 11, 2006. Rising criminal offense is a significant security challenge throughout the Caribbean. The murder rate in Jamaica continues to skyrocket, with 1,445 individuals eliminated in 2004 and more than 1,600 individuals in 2005. With rate of 60 murders per 100,000 inhabitants in 2005, Jamaica had the greatest murder rate worldwide. In late February 2006, Jamaicans were shocked over the ruthless killings of six family members, consisting of 4 kids in the western part of the country. High levels of violent criminal activity, including murder and kidnaping, likewise have pestered Trinidad and Tobago and Haiti. Even smaller Caribbean countries like St.
On April 22, 2006, Guyana's Farming minister, in addition to his 2 brother or sisters and a guard, were shot and eliminated in an evident break-in. Gangs associated with drug trafficking, extortion, and violence are accountable for much of the crime. Some observers believe that bad guys deported from the United States have added to the region's surge in violent criminal activity in the last few years, although some preserve that there is no established link. Jamaica has actually advocated the advancement of a worldwide procedure regarding the deportation of wrongdoers. A significant concern for Caribbean nationsthe bulk of which are net energy importershas been the increasing price of oil and the potential effect of such increasing rates on economic development and social stability.
Of these, only Trinidad and Tobago is a significant oil and gas manufacturer, accounting for 60% of tested oil reserves and 91% of gas reserves in the area. The country is also the largest provider of liquified gas (LNG) to the United States, accounting for 75% of all U.S. LNG imports. Apart from Trinidad and Tobago, Cuba also produces oil, but still imports a majority of its intake needs. Barbados also produces a percentage of oil, which is improved in Trinidad and Tobago, but it imports 90% of its oil intake needs. Venezuela is now using oil to Caribbean nations on preferential terms in a new program referred to as Petro, Caribe, and there has been some U.S.
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Considering that 1980, Caribbean countries have actually gained from preferential oil imports from Venezuela (and Mexico) under the San Jose Pact, and given that 2001, Venezuela has supplied extra support for Caribbean oil imports under the Caracas Energy Accord. Petro, Caribe, however, would go even more with the goal of putting in place a local supply, refining, and transport and storage network, and developing a development fund for those countries taking part in the program. What can i do with a degree in finance. Under the program, Venezuela announced that it would supply 190,000 barrels each day of oil to the region, with countries paying market costs for 50% of the oil within 90 days, and the balance paid over 25 years at a yearly rate of 2%.
To date, 14 Caribbean countries are signatories of Petro, Caribe. Barbados, which currently gets reduced petroleum rates from Trinidad, has decreased to sign the contract, and Trinidad, which has its own significant energy resources, has decreased to sign. (For additional information, see CRS Report RL33693, Latin America: Energy Supply, Political Developments, and U.S. Policy Approaches, by [author name scrubbed], [author name scrubbed], and [author name scrubbed]) The AIDS epidemic in the Caribbean, where infection rates are among the highest outside of sub-Saharan Africa, has actually currently started to have negative repercussions for economic and social advancement in the region. In 2005, an estimated 300,000 grownups and children in the Caribbean were reported to be coping with HIV, with the epidemic declaring 24,000 lives during the year, making it the leading cause of death amongst adults aged 15-44 years.